Mr. Burke’s English Class Blog

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A Brief Explanation about Student Postings

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During the months of September and October, 2012, as an English class we are reading the Holocaust survival memoir NIGHT by Elie Wiesel and writing about what we learn. The writing projects include a Holocaust research page with pictures and sources, an infographic that illustrates on a poster our research on a specific Holocaust topic, and an essay that combines the Holocaust research with our readings in the book NIGHT. These are formal writing assignments and are uploaded onto this blog for publication.

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Student Holocaust Research Reports from September 2012

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2nd Period

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T-4 Euthanasia and the Holocaust Op-ed

By Heidi Tingle

The T-4 euthanasia program in German is called the “Euthanasie Programme.” The Germans would kill people that they thought weren’t “superior” or good enough to live with superior people, such as the people with mental disabilities. For instance, the people that were in some way crazy or people who had some kind of mental disability or who couldn’t work or take care of themselves were considered a “financial burden” to the government or the hospitals. If they couldn’t work and contribute to society, they were a financial burden and had to be dealt with. The Germans called it “Mercy Death” or “physician assisted suicide.” It was even the health care officials who were doing these mercy killings or having it be done under their supervision. These are the people that we call doctors and nurses today. So, it was not just Hitler and his Nazis who were killing people in Germany.

This defiantly wasn’t suicide or a “mercy death” in my view. I think that it’s just ridiculous that it was actual doctors and nurses who were doing this kind of stuff to their patients. This is one of the reasons why people might not like some doctors or nurses now. I want to be a nurse when I grow up, and this makes me just sick to think about this and how they killed innocent people.

One of the many victims of Germany’s T-4 euthanasia program.

Sources:    

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Brandon Briseno

Propaganda and The Holocaust

 

Propaganda is the art of persuasion. People use propaganda to persuade others that their side of the story is more correct.  Propaganda is usually repeated over a wide variety of media to create a chosen result in their audience’s attitude and perspective. Propaganda in Nazi Germany was taken to a new level; Hitler was very aware of the value of propaganda and appointed Joseph Goebbels as the Third Reich’s minister of propaganda.

In Nazi Germany Joseph Goebbels, head of propaganda, had two main tasks assigned to him.  First, ensure that nobody could read, see or hear anything hostile toward the Nazi party and second, to ensure that the views of the Nazis were put across in the most persuasive manner possible.

All journalist, writers, and artist were required to register with one of the ministry’s chambers for the press, fine arts, music theatre, film, literature or radio, and could only be published with Nazi approval. Un-German books, films and music were banned as illegal.

Hitler started imprisoning and exiling artists who were not for the Nazi party and created a corps of artists who were willing to immortalize the Nazis on canvas. In 1937 the Nazis sponsored three art exhibitions that showed their views on art and of artists. In the third art show the paintings showed stereotypes of Jews as communists, liars and sex-fiends. This showed the power of art to create an enemy—the very point of propaganda.

Sources:

http://www2.facinghistory.org/Campus/OC/reslib.nsf/

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/propaganda_in_nazi_germany.htm

Goebbels’ Principles of Propaganda, Leonard W. Doob, Public Opinion Quarterly, Fall 1950 pp. 419-442

Propagation and Persuasion; Jowett & O’Donnell

http://library.thinkquest.org/C0111500/ww2/german/naziprop.htm

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Christian Ibarra

Ukrainian Guards and the Holocaust

Ukrainians were independent in the past. They had their freedom to do almost anything and were not forced to be laborers for others. But this changed over time. Their justice, freedom, and other similar ideas were taken away from them by the Germans.

Ukrainian guards are also witnesses; many were volunteers, and many were participants to the Holocaust. They were forced to do what the Germans ordered them to do. They had no other choice but to give up their freedom to the Germans and to take part in the Holocaust. If not, they could be shot. Germans were usually lackadaisical with the Ukrainian guards, though.

They helped the Germans by working for them for free and by not making them work or get weary. The Germans didn’t have to worry a lot about their work because the Ukranians were doing it for them so efficiently. Ukrainian Guards were often employed as camp guards, including as camp executioners in Poland. They did all the tasks that the Germans ordered them to do, and they were very successful at it.

As you know, the  Jews were treated badly in concentration camps, and some Ukrainians volunteered to join with the Germans in guarding the camps. Well, these Ukrainians that joined with the Germans also treated the Jews as badly as the Germans did. They didn’t feel any sort of sorrow for these people. They didn’t care for them, and they treated them like dogs. For example, the Ukrainians would physically attack the Jewish camp prisoners. They were lackadaisical about Jewish life and didn’t feel any kind of anguish in their hearts for the Jewish tragedy. The dehumanizing metaphor of a dog is that dogs, as animals, are sometimes treated badly. The Jews, seen as no better than a dog, were frequently treated worse than a Ukranian would treat a common dog. They robbed these people in the same process as the Germans did in order to benefit themselves in a good way, usually by stealing money and gold teeth from the Jews in concentration camps.

Sources:

http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/revolt/belzecresistance.html

http://www.holocaust-history.org/questions/ukrainians.shtml

http://www.sobibor.info/murderers.html

Pictures:

http://www.google.com/search?q=ukrainian+guards&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&oe=&um=1&ie=UTF-8&hl=en&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&ei=ZuVZUMPnOYGuigKdj4HoAg&safe=active&biw=1680&bih=845&sei=fuZZUOKpLaizigLa5ICgDg)

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Denmark and the Holocaust

by Zach Wiltfang

In April, 1940, Denmark was occupied by the German army. The occupation was a peaceful one. It was apparent that the Germans did not want to upset the peace in Denmark.

King Christian X worked hard to keep the moral of the people up during these hard times. He would ride his horse through the streets of Copenhagen daily, meeting people and boosting there spirit. He also made it quite clear that the Jews were not to be treated differently then anyone else.

George Duckowits, the director of the German shipping operation in Denmark, was told that the Jews in Denmark were going to be deported. On September 28th he reported this during a meeting of the Danish underground. As soon as Duckowitz left, they called the Danish secret police. They sent vehicles and went around Denmark telling this to as many Jews as possible.

Most Jews took this advice, and when the Gestapo raided Jewish homes, German commandos returned empty handed. About 6000 Jews escaped. The Jews were helped by total strangers, who transported them to fishing villages along the cost and hid them, fed them and took them to Sweden.

Unfortunately some 500 Jews were captured by the Germans and were taken to a camp. There they were kept until they were freed one and a half years later. Only 50 of them died.

In the summer of 1943 the war started to turn against the Germans. With this came increased acts of sabotage by the Danish people. So Eichman sent SS troops from Germany to carry out the “final solution” on Denmark’s Jews.

A Danish resistance movement did exist. Many of those in it had also been in the Danish Army. Those in the resistance were willing to pass on intelligence or sabotage by order of resistance leaders within Denmark.

The resistance movement grew to over 20,000, and in the lead up to D-Day, acts of sabotage increased. The D-Day landings were to be in Normandy. The British believed that the more German soldiers tied up elsewhere in Europe, the less that could be present in northern France during D-Day. The more acts of sabotage in Denmark, the more German troops would be tied down there.

During the time that the Jews were in Sweden, their homes and schools were kept in perfect condition by the Danish people.

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Holocaust Selections in the Concentration Camps

By Colton Robertson

The selections were just one more brutal part of the Holocaust. Because all families, including kids, the elderly, and the sick were separated from the people they loved, they were not given a chance to show the Germans that they could work as well.

There was a doctor at the train when it arrived at a concentration camp, and before the Jews would even enter the camps, they had to line up outside of the transport trains. Women were sent to the left, and men were sent to the right. Then the doctor would make the decision as to whether they were eligible to work or not—to live or not. If they weren’t eligible to work, they were stripped down and sent right to the gas chambers. The only people that they would consider to be capable of work were kids maybe of 14 years old or older and men and women under 40.

But even those people who were selected as eligible to work only survived in the concentration camps for an average about four months, mainly because they rarely got anything to eat, not anything fulfilling anyways.

Once the Jews were separated by the selections, the ones that were fit to work had to check in or register. The Jews would line up and take their clothes off and put them on a hook with their shoes. They had to get a numbered tattooed on them, a number like cows have branded on them, because they were not being treated as human beings any longer. They were being treated like animals. Then they would have all body hair shaved off. Then they were forced through a shower. The showers were usually burning hot or ice, ice cold. Then after the showers they were given black and white striped pajamas and wooden clogs. After they got dressed, they were marched off to the blocks to begin their life within the work camp, such as Auschwitz-Birkenau.

Sources:

www.holocaust-education.dk

www.theholocaustexplained.org

www.history.co.uk

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Zyklon-B and the Holocaust: Hitler’s Tool of Death

by Gabe Orton

Zyklon-B basically suffocates you to death. A chemical of the Zyklon-B solid interacts with the CO2 in the air making the poison gaseous. German soldiers would drop the solid pellets of Zyklon-B into the chambers through vents in the gas chamber ceiling thereby releasing a toxic gas. Those inside died within 15-20 minutes. Yes, it was a very slow and painful death.

Where did it come from?

Zyklon-B was developed by Fritz Haber, a German Jewish chemist and Nobel laureate. It was a cyanide based insecticide and was used during the First World War for delousing but was later used in the killing of thousands of Jews in concentration camp gas chambers.

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What is it made of?

Zyklon-B is made from hydrocyanic acid, or prussic acid, which is called Blausäure in German, hence the B designation in the German name Zyklon-B. It was used as a poison gas in some Nazi extermination camps, mainly Auschwitz.

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The Holocaust Transports 

by Chelsea Bowman

This is about how the Nazis got all of the Jews to the concentration camps. Some would say “that it makes no difference; you are Jewish, and you are coming with us.” The transportation in trains they were taken in was called “deportation,” and they were sent to killing centers, such as Auschwitz. The Germans would put about 100 people in each box car. When the prisoners were in the cars, it would depend on how long they would have to stay on these trains because they never know how long the train ride would be to get to a concentration camp. They would not get any food or water usually, and they would have nowhere to go to the bathrooms or anything while in these box cars. Some of the people on the first day would end up going crazy and not know what was going on and would even see things that weren’t really there.

Once they got to a concentration camp, they had to be separated from their families. The ones who could do hard labor were kept for labor; the other people, such as the elderly mothers, little kids, and babies, were immediately sent to the gas chambers. The Germans would use these gas chambers so that they could kill a whole bunch of people at one time. They wanted it to be less work in the end for them. They did anything they could do to kill people efficiently and effectively but also to make it enjoyable for them as well. This was the dehumanization process typical of genocides like the Holocaust. They used a gas called Zyklon B. It was basically cyanide, and once it hit the air it turned into the deadly gas. It would feel like you were suffocating, and it took around 15 minutes to kill a room full of people this way. Then once they were dead, the Germans would have all the bodies taken out of the gas chambers, taken underground to the crematoria ovens, and had the bodies burned. When the ovens were full to capacity, the Germans would make the Jews dig deep, long trenches so that they could burn the bodies there as well.

At the Belzec death camp the Germans would have lime acid thickly spread on the bottom of the train cars, and they would then have the box cars stuffed with a whole bunch of people. The lime acid would eat all of the soft flesh off of their bones so that all that would be left of a person within a week’s time would be the bones. There would be so many people in the train cars that they would have to throw people on top of other people. Some of the train rides took days on end. Sometimes a train would get to a camp and where the ride had lasted two weeks or even 18 days, and of course, by that time everyone in the train would be dead.

Sources:

1) http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/09/holocaust-jewish-transports-concentration-camps

2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holocaust_train

3)http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=1000532

4) Wiesel, Elie. NIGHT.

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Zane Norr on Hitler’s Book Mein Kampf and the Holocaust

Mein Kampf is an important source for Hitler’s beliefs. In it he announces his hatred of what he believes to be the world’s twin evils: communism and Judaism.

Adolf Hitler’s hatred of the Jews stems from his belief that the Jews “stole” victory from the Germany during the First World War, according to a newly published book titled November 9th: How World War One Led to the Holocaust.

Hitler blamed the Jews and the communists living in Germany and felt that they were part of a huge conspiracy against the German military and people. The consequences of the First World War were that Germany’s economy took a substantial beating and that they were faced with huge debts to the allies. Hitler used the anti-Semitic feelings prevalent at that time in society to not only gain more power but also to fuel his own personal agenda of hate against the Jews.

Here’s a quote from Mein Kampf that shows what I’m trying to say. “First, therefore, [the Jew] goes about making up to the people for his previous sins against them. He begins his career as the ‘benefactor’ of mankind. Since his new benevolence has a practical foundation, that the left hand should not know what the right hand giveth; no, whether he likes it or not, he must reconcile himself to letting as many people as possible know how deeply he feels the sufferings of the masses and all the sacrifices that he himself is making to combat them.”

Throughout Mein Kampf, Hitler refers to Jews as parasites, liars, dirty, crafty, sly, wily, and clever, without any true culture, spongers, middle men, maggots, eternal blood suckers, repulsive, unscrupulous, monsters, foreign, a menace, bloodthirsty, avaricious, the destroyers of Aryan humanity, and the mortal enemy of Ayan humanity.

Here are some quotes from Mein Kampf that show this:

“The Jews were responsible for bringing negroes into the Rhineland with the ultimate idea of bastardising the White race which they hate and thus lowering its cultural and political level so that the Jew might dominate.” — Adolf Hitler

“The Jewish youth lies in wait for hours on end…spying on the unsuspicious German girl he plans to seduce…. He wants to contaminate her blood and remove her from the bosom of her own people. The Jew hates the White race and wants to lower its cultural level so that the Jews might dominate.” –Adolf Hitler

References:

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mein_Kampf
  2. http://www.haaretz.com/jewish-world/2.209/why-did-adolf-hitler-hate-the-jews-1.2618
  3. http://www.whyguides.com/why-did-hitler-hate-the-jews.html
  4. http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/kampf.htm
  5. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/Adolf_Hiter_Mein_Kampf.htm

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3rd Period

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Gas Chambers and the Holocaust

Mikeal Hollen

November 15th, 1939

On November 15th, 1939, the gas chamber came into play. 1100 people where gassed to death in this first human extermination experiment alone. In the earlier stages of gas chambers carbon monoxide was used regularly. By 1940s tens of thousands had been killed due to the gas chambers.
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The Expansion
By 1941 these gas chambers had been expanded out to the larger camps throughout Germany. Then, overtime, the Germans killed millions of innocent humans. At the camps of Belzec, Chelmno, Sobibor and Treblinka, the Germans used carbon monoxide gas. Hydrocyanic acid in a Zyklon-B base was used at the Auschwitz and Majdanek concentration camps.
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Who Were the Victims
Jews where the main target of the Holocaust, but the Nazis also targeted the mentally retarded, transexuals, homosexuals, members  of Jehovah‘ s Witnesses, Catholics, Gypsies or anybody  physically or mentally disabled. The innocent people that arrived at the concentration camps where divided up into men who could work and others, such as women, children, and the elderly. The group of women, children, and elderly where told they where all going to take a nice shower to clean off, but in fact they where jammed into these (shower) chambers. But instead of water coming out, it was cyanide gas.
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Body Disposal
After these people where euthanized they were sent to be burned. Victims of the Holocaust where forced to throw  bodies into the incinerators. This gave these a prisoners a reprieve allowing them a little longer time to live.
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Hitler and the Holocaust

by Angel Zamora

Adolf Hitler was born in Austria on April 20, 1889. He left school at the age of sixteen with dreams of becoming a painter.  In May 1913 he joined the sixteenth Bavarian infantry regiment as a dispatch runner. Hitler was a courageous soldier receiving the Iron Cross First Class for bravery but was never ranked passed Lance Corporal. He was wounded twice and was also gassed four weeks before the end of World War I. He spent three months in the hospital getting better as he had been temporarily blind.

One of the most important reasons for Hitler’s deep seated aversion for the Jews was that he thought of them as an inferior race. In his speeches and conversations, Hitler stated his belief that the Germans were the descendants of the mighty Aryan race. He believed that it was the destiny of this race to rule the world. Other races, like the Jews and Slavs, were to be their servants. As time went on, this hatred eventually led to his belief that they should be killed and that their entire race ought to be wiped off the face of the Earth.

Some say that his hatred from the Jews were because of some childhood experience, such as reading anti-Semitic books that made him hate Jews.  Some say that his parents were racist or that he got denied to a school where the one who denied him was a Jewish professor.  Others say his hatred was caused for political reasons.

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Dehumanization and the Holocaust

by ›Ashley Stewart

In the 1930s Hitler and his Nazis led a campaign of propaganda spreading lies about the Jews so that he could get people to dislike them. He blamed them for things such as the economic and social problems of Germany and for the First World War. He named them the inferior race. Not only was he trying to exterminate the Jews, he was also trying to eliminate gypsies and gays as well.

In January 1942, there was a meeting for top Nazis in the German government to finalize what they had been planning for the Jews. An official plan was agreed to which included SS plans for the transport and final destruction of all 11 million Jews throughout Europe. The Nazis were responsible for 6 million Jews, mostly in the death camps. Some of the consentration camps that the Jews were sent to were Treblinka, Belzec, Sobilor, Chelmno, and Lublin. Auschwitz continued to kill well through the summer of 1944. The Nazis would later begin to start dismantling the camps, though, hoping that they could cover up the horrible deaths that they were responsible for.

The Nazis created widespread anti-Semitism throughout Germany and Europe. They started by taking away the freedom and rights of all Jews. The Nazis said that the Jews must be excluded from society, schools, media, films, posters, and dramas. The idea was to get rid of the whole image and influence of all Jews.

The Germans started getting rid of the Jews by using violence, humiliation, and intimidation. The Jews had no say in anything. The Nazis could easily take you to the concentration camps or simply kill you on the spot.

Getting rid of the Jews was performed in many ways. They would starve them, so that the Jews would become weak and very ill. Prisoners would have to share a bunk with at least three other people in the same bed. That would not be good for anyone’s heath. As some became very ill, the Nazis would make them work even harder. They were given the daily choice to work or to be shot. Either way they were dead. The Jews were forced into gas chambers which were these tunnel-like rooms that could fit a hundred people or more, be sealed, and have gas come out of the hoses, and as soon as anyone breathed in the fumes, they died from suffocation. Also the Nazis would take small children and adults to these rooms where they would do horrible experiments on the Jews, for no reason at all, just to see them in awful pain and suffer till death.

When the Jews would arrive to these concentration camps, they would instantly get taken from their families: women going one way and men the other, not knowing if they would ever see their mother, father, sisters, or brothers ever again. The Jews would have a number tattooed on their arms, mostly in order for the Nazis to know who to dehumanize first. After being numbered, that’s all the Jews became, just a number. They lost their identity as well as their name and became a number.

Adolf Hitler said, “When I came to power, I did not want the concentration camps to become old page pensioners’ homes, but instruments of terror.”

The Holocaust ended with the end of WWII. The Nazis were done with the war. They lost the war to Russia and to the US, who were also allies. The allies freed the prisoners in the concentration camps in 1944-1945. When Hitler died in 1945, the Germans decided to surrender and to let go of the Jewish prisoners themselves. The over all results of the killing of the Jews and other ended up being around 11-17 millions deaths.

Sources:

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_did_the_Nazis_dehumanize_Jewish_people

http://www.teachingtheholocaust.org/events/dehumanization-human-rights-and-obligation-to-act/

http://www.npr.org/2011/03/29/134956180/criminals-see-their-victims-as-less-than-human

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Keely Ricketts

The Holocaust Transports

According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum’s (USHMM) website, “The Nazi’s used rail transport as one method to rearrange the ethnic composition of Eastern Europe. In 1941, the Nazi leadership decided to implement the ‘Final Solution,’ the systematic mass murder of European Jewry. The German authorities used rail systems across the continent to transport, or deport, Jews from their homes, primarily to Eastern Europe. Once they had begun to methodically kill Jews in specially constructed death camps. German officials deported Jews to these facilities by train or, when trains were not available or the distances were short, by truck or on foot.” I think this is cruel. If I were in their position, I wouldn’t want to live. I’m sure they had no clue what was going to happen. They constructed many different death camps, such as Belzec, Chelmno, Sobibor, Majdanek, Treblinka, and the biggest of all, Auschwitz.

TRANSPORT BY TRAIN

At the Wannsee Conference on January 20, 1942, held near Berlin, German state officials met to deport all the European Jews to “extermination camps” in German-occupied Poland. The participants of the conference estimated that the “Final Solution” would include the deportation and murder of 11 million Jews, including other Jewish residents from other nations outside German control, such as Ireland, Sweden, Turkey, and Great Britain.

Deportations on this scale required numerous German government agencies including the Reich Security Main Office, the Main Office of the Order Police, the Ministry of Transportation, and the Foreign Office. The regional SS and police leaders often directed the deportations. They rounded up and transported the Jews in small cattle cars to the death camps. The Foreign Office negotiated with Germany’s Axis partners over the transfer of their Jewish citizens to German custody.

The Germans tried to disguise their doings. They portrayed the deportations as a “resettlement” of the Jewish population in labor camps in the “East.”  But in reality, the “resettlement” in the “East” became a transport to the death camps of mass murder.

THE VICTIMS

The victims at Belzec were Jews from southern and southeastern Poland, but also Jews deported from the so-called Greater German Reich (Germany, Austria, the Sudetenland, and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia) to District Lublin between October 1941 and the end of summer 1942. Most Jews deported to Sobibor came from the Lublin District; but German authorities also transported French and Dutch Jews to Sobibor in spring and summer 1943 and small groups of Soviet Jews from Belorussian and Lithuanian ghettos in late summer 1943. German officials transported the Jews out from their districts where SS and police officials murdered them. In 1943 and 1944, the Auschwitz death camp played a huge role in the German plan to kill the Jews. Beginning in late winter 1943, trains arrived at Auschwitz on a regular basis carrying Jews from every German-occupied country of Europe — from as far north as Norway to the Greek island of Rhodes off the coast of Turkey in the south, and further. Another concentration camp, located near Lublin and known as Majdanek, served as a site for murdering targeted groups of Jewish and non-Jewish prisoners by gas and burning their bodies in ditches and pyres. The Germans killed nearly six million Jews during the Holocaust altogether.

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holocaust_train

http://www.theholocaustexplained.org/ks3/the-camps/daily-life/journeys/

http://www.aish.com/ho/o/48970811.html

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005372

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T-4 Euthanasia Program and the Holocaust

By ShyAnne Mendoza

                                                                          Patients of the T-4 Program in Germany.

The euthanasia program was an “experiment” to get rid of the people unable to work and take care of themselves.  The German government established the Euthanasie Programme in the fall of 1939. It was directed by Phillip Bouhler and Dr. Karl Brandt. The headquarters of the euthanasia program were at Tiergartenstrasse 4, Berlin. That’s where they got the code name “T-4” from.

Euthanasia typically means “mercy killings” and “physician-assisted suicide.” But, however, the T-4 program was not merciful nor was it suicide. They took innocent disabled children and killed them en mass. The euthanasia program was the beginning of the genocide of European Jewry known as the Holocaust.

After a while, they decided they were going to start euthanizing the disabled adult patients. The same acts were carried out: lethal injections, gassings, mass shootings, beaten to death. But, to sum it all up, they were murdered.

“According to Milton Meltzer: between December 1939 and August 1941, about 50,000 to 60,000 Germans—children and adults—were secretly killed by lethal injections or in gassing installations designed to look like shower stalls. It was a foretaste of Auschwitz. The victims were taken from the medical institution and put to death.” (Never to Forget. New York: HarperCollins, 1976: 131.)

Sources:

http://www.deathcamps.org/euthanasia/t4intro.html

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/t4.html

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005200

www.americaneedsfatima.blogspot.com

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Einsatzkommandos and the Holocaust

By Lakaiya Craig

Einsatzkommandos were also called Einsatzgruppen. “Einsatzgruppen were formed in the spring of 1941 for the campaign against Soviet Russia. Adolf Hitler issued an order that the Security Police and Security Services would assist the army in combating resistance behind the front lines.” They were formed in sub-groups of five. They had up to 3,000 men each to a group. “They were usually composed of 500 to 1,000 functionaries of the SS and the Gestapo.”

Einsatzgruppen were mobile killing squads. Their mission was mainly to kill Jews. They would make the Jewish men dig their own ditches which became their graves. “After the victims had handed over their valuables and undressed, men, women, and children were shot, either standing before the open trench or lying face down in the prepared pit.”

“Einsatzgruppen also murdered thousands of residents of institutions for the mentally and physically disabled.”Einsatzgruppen came directly to the home communities of Jews and massacred them and took them to killing centers. “At first the Einsatzgruppen shot primarily Jewish men. By late summer 1941, however, wherever the Einsatzgruppen went, they shot Jewish men, women, and children without regard for age or sex.”

“Shooting was the most common form of killing used by the Einsatzgruppen. Yet in the late summer of 1941, Heinrich Himmler, noting the psychological burden that mass shootings produced on his men, requested that a more convenient mode of killing be developed. The result was a gas van, a mobile gas chamber surmounted on the chassis of a cargo truck which employed carbon monoxide from the truck’s exhaust to kill its victims.”

“After the outbreak of the war with the Soviet Union, known as Operation Barbarossa, the Red Army began to retreat so fast that the large Einsatzgruppen had to be split into dozens of smaller commandos. . . . Several Einsatzkommando officers were tried and hanged after the war.” The Einsatzgruppen leaders were Paul Blobel, Otto Ohlendorf, Eric Naumann, and Karl Eberhard Schongarth. They were the leaders of the Einsatzgruppen A, B, C, and D. The leader of the Einsatzgruppen was Rienhardt Heydrich.

The Four Formed Einsatzgruppen

Einsatzgruppe A – Attached to Army Group North  – 990  men

Einsatzgruppe B – Attached to Army Group Centre – 665 men

Einsatzgruppe C – Attached to Army Group South – 700 men

Einsatzgruppe D – Attached to German 11th Army  – 600 men

Sources:

http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/einsatz/index.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einsatzkommando

http://www.deathcamps.org/occupation/einsatzgruppen.html

http://www.aish.com/ho/o/Einsatzgruppen-The-Killing.html

http://history1900s.about.com/od/holocaust/tp/Einsatzgruppen-Pictures.htm

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005130

Pictures:

http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/einsatz/images/einsatz1.jpg

http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/holocaust/hol-pix/wsaw-exec.jpg

http://www.aish.com/ho/o/Einsatzgruppen-The-Killing.html

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Holocaust Selections

by Francisco Romero

Once the Jews were unloaded from the trains and separated into male and female lines, they were then subjected to a selection process. Auxiliary SS doctors carried out this selection. Usually those aged over 14 years of age and deemed “fit” for work were sent to one side of the unloading ramp; the rest were sent to the other side. The elderly and women with children were sent directly to the line of prisoners who were condemned to death in the gas chambers.

Those Jews selected for work were sent to a separate building for registration. Prisoners would be registered before undressing, and then by placing their clothes on a hook in an undressing room, they would be tattooed with a registration number, shaved of all body hair, disinfected, and forced through showers that were either extremely cold or painfully hot.

Once showered, prisoners were given the infamous striped pajamas, a hat, and a pair of wooden clogs. They were then marched to the barrack blocks to begin their life within the camp.

After the deportation trains arrived at the killing centers, guards would order the deportees to get out of the trains and to form a line. The victims would then go through a selection process. Men were separated from women and children. A Nazi, usually an SS physician, looked quickly at each person to decide if he or she was healthy and strong enough for forced labor. This SS officer then pointed to the left or the right; victims did not know at that time that individuals were being selected to live or die. Babies and young children, pregnant women, the elderly, the handicapped, and the sick had little chance of surviving this first selection.

Those who had been selected to die were then led to gas chambers. In order to prevent panic, camp guards would tell the victims that they were going to take showers to rid themselves of lice. The guards instructed them to turn over all of their valuables and to then undress. Next they were driven naked into the “showers.” A guard would close and lock the steel door to the gas chamber. In some killing centers, carbon monoxide was piped into the chamber. In others, camp guards would throw “Zyklon B” pellets down an air shaft. Zyklon B was a highly poisonous insecticide also used to kill rats and insects.

Usually within minutes after entering the gas chambers, everyone inside was dead from lack of oxygen. Under guard, “sonderkommando” prisoners were forced to haul the corpses to a nearby room where the bodies were removed of their hair and gold teeth or fillings. The bodies were then burned in the ovens of the crematoria or sometimes buried in mass graves.

Many people profited from the pillage of corpses. Camp guards stole some of the gold. The rest was melted down and deposited in an SS bank account. Private business firms bought and used the hair to make many products, including ship rope and sleeping mattresses.

Sources:

http://www.theholocaustexplained.org/ks3/the-final-solution/auschwitz-birkenau/selection/

http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007714

http://www.martinfrost.ws/htmlfiles/holocaust.html

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Victoria Henderson’s Report on Operation Barbarossa and the Holocaust

Operation Barbarossa was the name given to Nazi Germany’s invasion of Russia on June 22nd, 1941. Barbarossa, the largest military attack of World War Two, was to have appalling consequences for the Russian people.”

The German invasion of the Soviet Union ultimately resulted in 95% of all German Army casualties from 1941 to 1944 and 65% of all Allied military casualties accumulated throughout the war.

Operation Barbarossa was named after Frederick Barbarossa, the medieval German ruler who, as myth had it, would rescue Germany in her time of need. In these pictures, Germans are preparing partisans to be hanged.

“Hitler’s intention was always to invade the Soviet Union. It was, along with the destruction of the Jews, fundamental to his core objectives – living-space in the east and the subjugation of the Slavic race. He stated his intentions clearly enough in his semi-autobiographical Mein Kampf, published in 1925.”

“You have only to kick in the door,” said Hitler confidently, “and the whole rotten structure will come crashing down.” Two tons of Iron Crosses were waiting in Germany for those involved with the capture of Moscow. This was always going to be the most brutal war, one which could not be “conducted with chivalry,” as Hitler told his generals, but “conducted with unprecedented, unmerciful, unrelenting harshness.”

“Hitler’s actual military plans also were so false strategically that they could only succeed if the Red Army collapsed from internal stress. That, in fact, is what Hitler counted on. He did not expect to win by a superior method or concept, but by relying on the Russian army to disintegrate after a series of initial battles.”

Great generals don’t win wars in this fashion. They don’t depend upon their enemies to make mistakes or give up. A great general relies upon his own ideas, initiative, skill, and maneuvers to put the enemy in a position where he must do the general’s bidding.

Sources:

history/ww2/barbarossa/video.html?bctid=68855895001&Operation-Barbarossa

http://www.history.co.uk/explore

http://www.historyinanhour.com/2011/06/22/operation-barbarossa-summary/

http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/wwii/articles/barbarossa.aspx

www.historylearningsite.co.uk/operation_barbarossa.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Barbarossa

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4th Period

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Transports and the Holocaust

By Monica Montez

Rail Transportation was used to transport or deport Jews at the concentration camps. They were taken to concentration camps in the eastern area of Europe, such as Poland. If the trains weren’t available, they were transported by trucks or even on foot. The SS and police leaders directed these deportations.

During transports the prisoners were usually not given food or water, even if the transportation case was to take a couple of days or more until they arrived at the concentration camps. Without food or water many didn’t make it alive to these camps. People suffered from overcrowding, and there were no sanitary facilities (bathrooms). There was the smell of urine that added to their humiliation on the train.

Armed police guards attended the transports shooting anyone who tried to escape. Between December 1941 and July 1942, the Germans established five killing centers. The Germans killed nearly three million Jews in these five killing centers during World War II. The Germans deported Jews from Italy, Greece, and Croatia, and from all over occupied Europe.

Transports of about a thousand people a day were common. The prisoners were lied to and were told that they were going to better living conditions and work places, when in reality they weren’t. This era was very sad and is a horrible time to remember.

Sources:

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005372

http://www.theholocaustexplained.org/ks3/the-camps/daily-life/freddie-remembers-his-journey-to-auschwitz/… (Video)

http://www.theholocaustexplained.org/ks3/the-camps/daily-life/journeys/

http://www.aish.com/ho/o/48970811.html

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Adolf Hitler and the Holocaust

by Ashlee McCain

Adolf Hitler was a German politician. He was the main reason for the rise of fascism in Europe during World War II and for the Holocaust. Hitler talked people into killing the Jews and told them that they are a dirty people; they are just there for us to exterminate. The Nazis killed 17 million people during World War II, including about six million Jews.

“Adolf Hitler firmly believed that it was the destiny of this race to rule the world. Other races, like the Jews and Slavs, were to be their servants. As time went on, this hatred eventually led to his belief that they should be killed and that their entire race ought to be wiped out.” # 4

“Another possible reason for Hitler’s hatred of the Jews was probably jealousy. After World War I, he saw that a lot of Germans were without jobs and were struggling. Instead of looking at the war as the root cause of the economic problem, he blamed the Jews for the Germans sorry state of affairs. Even during the hard times, the Jews were able to make good money in Germany. Through sheer resourcefulness they were able to land jobs as lawyers, doctors and skilled professionals. Hitler’s anger and hatred intensified because he felt that the Jews were taking away the opportunities that rightfully belonged to the Aryans.” # 4

 

From what we have learned in our English class this mini-term, we really have no rational reason for why Hitler exterminated the Jews.  The fact that he called it extermination just disgusts me.  People are not rats or any kind of pest that needs to be exterminated. No matter what their race or religion is, we are all human beings!

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“DIE JEWS! DIE!”

Sources:

  1. http://www.auschwitz.dk/hitler.htm
  2. http://www.annefrank.dk/albums13/hitler2.htm
  3. http://webpages.scu.edu/ftp/kwendland/Spring%20Qtr/pastleaders.html
  4. http://www.whyguides.com/why-did-hitler-hate-the-jews.html

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The T-4 Euthanasia Program and the Holocaust

By Johnnae Cesspooch

The word “euthanasia” actually means “the good death” and usually refers to the inducement of a painless death for a chronically or terminally ill individual who would otherwise suffer. Adolf Hitler initiated this program for Germany in 1939. The program consists of starvation and lethal injections. Later doctors would chose asphyxiation by poison gas as the preferred killing technique for these kinds of patients.

Gassings occurred in chambers disguised as showers, and the showers would emit lethal gas doses provided for by chemists. T-4 program administrators established gas chambers at six killing centres in Germany and Austria: Hartheim, Sonnenstein, Grafeneck, Bernburg, Hadamar, and Brandenburg.

The most obvious patients for euthanasia were individuals institutionalized in mental hospitals or institutions for the disabled. The program’s directors ordered a survey of all psychiatric institutions, hospitals, and homes for these chronically ill patients. The T4 administrators wanted to go much farther than this though. They wanted to find individuals being cared for at home by their families and eliminate them as well or least neuter them so they couldn’t reproduce.

Census forms were immediately sent out requesting for “statistical purposes” to list all patients who were senile, criminally insane, or of non-German blood. Family doctors had to report on their patients. The SS staff in charge of the transports donned white coats to keep up the charade of a medical procedure. The T-4 program staff informed victims’ families of the patient’s transfer to the killing centers.

Bouhler, Philipp

There was even a Child Euthanasia in the spring and summer months of 1939. Philipp Bouhler, the director of Hitler’s private chancellery, and Karl Brandt, Hitler’s attending physician, began a killing operation targeting German children with signs of mental or physical disability. They included juveniles up to the age of 17 years old. They told the mothers and children that they were taking them to clinics, but in reality the clinic was their killing wards where specially recruited medical staff murdered their young charges by lethal overdoses of medication or by starvation. Conservative estimates suggest that at least 5,000 physically and mentally disabled German children perished as a result of the child “euthanasia” program during the war years.

Dr. Wagner

Dr. Wagner was a Doctor at the Buchenwald concentration camp and did a dissertation on tattooing. Wagner selected people with tattoos to die and made furniture out of their human skin and bones (Hackett, 1995).

Dr. Vaernet

He experimented with ways to try to cure homosexuality by injecting synthetic hormones into mens’ groins, hoping that this would alter their sex drives and preferences (Hackett, 1995).

Dr. Hermann Stieve

Dr. Stieve was the director of the Institute of Anatomy at Berlin University. He conducted experiments on women prisoners from the Ploetsensee prison and at Ravensbrueck concentration camp. He examined the female menstrual cycle under stress, including looking at irregular bleeding that women manifested after they were informed that they would be executed.

Dr. Plaza

Dr. Plaza was an SS captain at the Buchenwald concentration camp. Plaza killed a lot of patients by lethal injection.

Dr. Neuman

Dr. Neuman was a doctor at the Buchenwald concentration camp who experimented on people by vivisecting them and cutting pieces out of their livers.

Dr. Auther Dietzsch

A doctor at Buchenwald, Dr. Dietzsch suggested that Dr. Ding (Schuler) inject typhus patients with fresh blood; this killed them.

“The Hadamar psychiatric hospital was used as a euthanasia killing center from January until August 1941. Nazi doctors gassed about 10,000 German patients there. Although systematic gassings ended in September 1941, the killing of patients continued through the end of the war. American soldiers supervised the exhumation of the cemetery at Hadamar and begin the interrogation of Dr. Adolf Wahlmann and Karl Wilig, who participated in the killings.”

— Grinberg Archives

Sources:

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/t4.html

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_fi.php?ModuleId=10005200&MediaId=199

http://histclo.com/essay/war/ww2/cou/ger/eug/ge-t4.html

http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/euthan/index.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_T4#Killing_of_adults

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Einsatzkommandos and the Holocaust

By Karen Wyatt

Nazi German “einsatzkommando” was a group of five “einsatzgruppen” or mobile killing squads during World War II. Up to three thousand men were assigned to an einsatzkommando, most of whom were from either the general SS or from the Gestapo. On July 31, 1939, the mission of these groups was defined as “combating all anti-German elements within hostile countries behind the troops in combat.”

Within the first few weeks of Operation Barbarossa, these groups made more than ten thousand arrests. On September 3, 1939, Heinrich Himmler ordered them to shoot anyone who is considered a danger to German life or property. By then these groups had already killed around fifteen thousand Jews.

Heinrich Himmler was a catholic schoolmaster and an educated officer cadet. “On the re-formation of the Nazi party, his diligence and loyalty were rewarded when he was appointed head of Hitler’s personal bodyguard in January 1929.”

The main einsatzgruppen intent was to kill Jews in captured territories. They were often far behind the advancing German front. The red army began to retreat so fast after the outbreak of war with the German “Operation Barbarossa” that the einsatzgruppen split into dozens of smaller commandos. Several of these einsatzkommando officers were later tried and hung after the war.

“Next to the gas chambers, the mass shootings behind the German-Russian front are said to have been the main tool of wanton mass murder of Europe’s Jews. The units allegedly deployed for that purpose were the infamous einsatzgruppen, whose official task was to ‘pacify’ the rear area of the German army in the East, mainly by combatting partisan groups.”

Sources:

www.codoh.com/library/categories/965

www.wikipedia.org/wiki/einsatzkommando

www.deathcamps.org/occupation/einsatzgruppen.html

Video named “The Holocaust by Bullets” on:

www.natgeotv.com/ca/world-war-II-theapocalypse/videos

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Mein Kampf: The “Blue Print” for the Holocaust

by Savanah Partridge

In the year between 1923 and 1924, Adolf Hitler was imprisoned along with Rudolf Hess for taking part in the Beer Hall Putsch of ’23; he was sentenced to a total of five years. However, the year between ’23 and ’24 was the most productive for him; as this was the year that Hitler dictated to his cellmate—Rudolf Hess, his ideas for the world. He entitled these ideas “Four and a Half Years of Struggle against Lies, Stupidity, and Cowardice.”

After being released from prison, Hitler found a publisher for the book, who lobbied to change the name to Mein Kampf or My Battle. When first released in 1925, the book sold very poorly. Readers found the book to be filled with long, hard to follow sentences and wandering paragraphs—written by a man who considered himself to be “self-educated.”

Adolf Hitler’s autobiographical book was full of stories about his youth and his early days in the Nazi party. The focal point of the book, however, was his future plans for Germany and his thoughts on the racial hierarchy he believed would better the world—a racial hierarchy he believed to be the natural order of things.

Hitler wrote extensively about his ideas of how things should be—of how he intended to make them be. The book details categories for people based on appearance and race. At the top of the hierarchy lies what Hitler refers to as the “Aryan”: a purely Germanic man of fair skin and hair, with blonde hair (these features apply to women as well.) Hitler says of this race, “The Aryan is the supreme form of human—the master race.”

You cannot, however, have a master race without having lesser races; a race of people who takes their place at the very bottom of this totem pole. Hitler calls these people the “Untermenschen.” Hitler lists the Slavic peoples: Czechs, Poles, and Russians here, but below even them were those of the Jewish race and faith.

Throughout his book Hitler details why, exactly, the Jewish people find their place at the bottom of this order. Hitler blames the Jewish people for engaging in a conspiracy throughout time to keep the Aryan race from rising to their rightful place as rulers of the world. He calls the Jewish people the “mightiest counterpart to the Aryan race.” He even goes so far as to claim that the Jewish people have worked throughout history to found an international conspiracy to control the finances of the world, what the media puts out, and that, as a people, they work to promote vile things. I would like to point out, though, that nowhere in the book does he outline exactly how the Jewish people managed these feats.

Along with elaborating on these extremes of human races and the powers they are or are not entitled to, Hitler states that the Aryans should be in complete and total control of the world and of the Untermenschen. The Aryan race should ensure that they remain at the top by any means necessary, and those below the Aryan race should know their place, accept it, and even work to keep the Aryans at the top and themselves at the designated place below the Aryans.

In Mein Kampf, Hitler states, “…it [Nazi philosophy] by no means believes in an equality of races, but along with their differences, it recognizes their higher or lesser values and feels itself obligated to promote the victor of the better and stronger, and demand the subordination of the inferior and weaker in accordance with the eternal Will that dominates this universe.”

Along with being racially superior in every way, Hitler goes on to explain that the Aryan race is culturally superior in all things: arts, sciences, and technologies. He states that all advances and creations in the world are credited by members of the Aryan race. Hitler even explains that evidence of his ideas lies within history; it lies within the many scenarios of people of the Aryan race traveling to new worlds and enslaving its native people. He claims that in cases of these incidents, the cultures being enslaved are “benefitting” from the control the Aryans taking them over.

All in all, the book Mein Kampf, published in 1925, detailed all of Hitler’s plans that he carried out during World War II—down to the conquering of lands east of Germany, which were intended for “Lebensraum”—living space for the Aryan race. During World War II, as Hitler’s book more and more became reality, sales increased wildly. It became traditional to give Mein Kampf as a gift to high school graduates and newlyweds. Later, Hitler is said to have regretted producing it, “considering the extent of its revelations.”

Sources:

http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/kampf.htm

http://www.funtrivia.com/en/subtopics/Mein-Kampf-229832.html

http://www.theage.com.au/opinion/blogs/wokkapedia/annotating-evil-20120502-1xyka.html

http://www.buzzle.com/articles/adolf-hitlers-life-mein-kampf.html

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/images/meinkampf.gif

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/images/hitler1.jpg

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By Tana Cherry

Zyklon-B is a poisonous gas designed by Fritz Haber. It is made from hydrogen cyanide crystals (HCN) and was originally manufactured for pest control. It is normally the shape of small pellets or disks. HCN caused suffication follows the application of Zyklon-B. Mixing iron and concrete can create hydrocyanic (HCN) compounds, which Fred Leuchter admitted were found in the ruins of the gas chamber in Krematoria II of Auschwitz-Birkenau.

The prisoners that were too weak to work were sent to the gas chambers. The Nazis told them that they would be taking a shower so that they wouldn’t panic. They disguised the showerheads in order to gas the prisoners with the Zyklon-B pellets. The SS used Zyklon-B for mass extermination of prisoners in the gas chambers in an effort to satisfy Hitler’s demand to annihilate all European Jews.

The Germans would dump the blue HCN pellets into the chambers down a special air shaft or opening in the ceiling of the gas chamber. The pellets would vaporize, giving off a noticeable bitter almond odor. When the vapors were inhaled, they combine with red blood cells, depriving the human body of oxygen. It causes unconsciousness and suffocation.

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SOURCES:

http://www.nizkor.org/faqs/auschwitz/auschwitz-faq-06.html

http://judaism.about.com/od/holocaust/ss/ausch_tour_5.htm

PICTURES:

http://en208spring2010akers.blogspot.com/2011/04/borowski-ladies-and-gentlemen-to-gas.html

http://www.awesomestories.com/assets/auschwitzbirkenau-use-of-zyklon-b

http://www.sappho.dk/zyklon-b-and-the-conservatives.htm

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Katelyn Parkinson

Dehumanization During the Holocaust

The definition of dehumanization on dictionary.com is “Dehumanization describes the efforts to mitigate one’s sense of humanity or efforts to undermine one’s access to basic human rights. Dehumanization also takes the form of undermining one’s individuality, the creative and interesting aspects of his or her personality, or of preventing one from showing compassion towards others.”

The point of dehumanization is to give yourself power over that person you are dehumanizing. I couldn’t do such a thing. All people have the same right to be who we are, who we want ot be, and to feel the way we do. It’s all about human dignity. It does not mean that someone can take away someone else’s rights without due process of law. Hitler had so much power, and he affected so many people. He murdered thousands of people because he had hatred towards the Jewish people. Adolf Hitler was an evil man and also the men behind him doing the murdering. During the Holocaust Hitler had six million Jews killed. He dehumanized men, women and children, and he had them murdered without any regrets.

Hitler had lied to everyone about the Jews in order to make his campaign of propaganda as effective as it was. The Nazis made the Jews look like trouble. Hitler was blaming them for the world’s economic and social problems. Hitler also wanted the Germans to hate the Jews so that Hitler’s men could get away with murdering millions of the Jews.

“The propaganda was intended to dehumanize the Jews by naming them an ‘inferior race,’ to create widespread anti-Semitism and to lay the groundwork for the elimination of the rights and freedoms of the Jews. The Nazis preached that Jews must be excluded from society, and used schools, the media and popular art forms, such as films, posters and dramas, to teach and project a distorted image of the Jews.” This is duhumanization and how it was used to affect the Holocaust.

Sources:

1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dehumanization

2) www.Dictionary.com

3) http://www.jfedpgh.org/page.aspx?id=148357

4) http://www.google.com/imgres?q=dehumanization+during+the+holocaust&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&biw=1184&bih=550&tbm=isch&tbnid=GKeOlPCqoCTHvM:&imgrefurl=

http://schikelgruber.net/holocaust2.html&docid=z8qmXXfGXWlCOM&imgurl=http://schikelgruber.net/tmp/pics/holocaust.jpg

&w=512&h=402&ei=Kj1SUMyFJI_higKmwoHAAg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=663&vpy=130&dur=143&hovh=199&hovw=253&tx=105&ty=110&sig=

110936965846269363841&page=1&tbnh=105&tbnw=134&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:0,i:84

5) http://www.google.com/imgres?q=dehumanization+during+the+holocaust&start=136&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&biw=1184&bih=550&tbm=isch&tbnid=oku-ZxCr-0_2yM:&imgrefurl=http://ocfordarfur.wordpress.com/2011/04/28/good-books-and-films-about-the-holocaust/&docid=raenBL6mA462iM&imgurl=http://ocfordarfur.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/holocaust-a-mother-tries-to-save-her-child.jpg%253Fw%253D630&w=573&h=411&ei=gj1SUJWyMaKWiQL-lID4BQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=537&sig=110936965846269363841&page=9&tbnh=160&tbnw=203&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:136,i:162&tx=97&ty=85

6) http://www.google.com/imgres?q=hitler&start=237&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&biw=1184&bih=550&tbm=isch&tbnid=kQpjDfpqm2aSCM:&imgrefurl=

http://themoderatevoice.com/140130/stop-comparing-your-foes-to-hitler/&docid=N1-qu7RTFYI9NM&imgurl=http://cdn.themoderatevoice.com/wordpress-engine/files//2012/02/903359-hitler1.jpg

&w=316&h=421&ei=7T1SUO2RHobiigKVrIHQBQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=248&vpy=127&dur=394&hovh=259&hovw=194&tx=92&ty=165&sig=

110936965846269363841&page=14&tbnh=164&tbnw=123&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:237,i:171

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The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and the Holocaust

by Dalton Stewart

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is a book describing the “Jewish plan for global domination.” This book turned out to be a hoax. It was first published in Russia in 1903. It was then translated into multiple languages thereafter. Hitler and the Nazis read the text as if it were a valid document, even after it was exposed as a fraud. When the Nazi party rose to power in 1933, they ordered the text to be studied in German classrooms. People believe that Hitler used the book as a manual to justify his reason for starting the Holocaust, that it was his “warrant for genocide.”

The Protocols were already determined to be a forgery/fraud/hoax by the time Hitler got his hands on it. Hitler also references the Protocols in his memoir, Mein Kampf. He claims it to be “authentic evidence of a Jewish plot that swept Germany under its control.” Hitler incorporated these Protocols into his speeches from August 1921 and thereafter.

The Protocols were not the main reason for anti-Semitism, which is discrimination and hatred towards the Jews because of their Jewish heritage, although, the book was used as evidence to support the anti-Semitism cause. The Protocols were a strong influence on the Nazis because it also began to be used for propaganda for Germans to join the cause. . . .”  Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels said, “The Zionist Protocols are as up-to-date today as they were the day they were first published.” It also boosted anti-Semitism in Germany. The Nazis had 23 different editions of The Protocols printed. In the end, it resulted in the death of over six million Jews.

Sources:


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